High-yield forest construction and trends (Chinese)

Favorable conditions for the construction of fast-growing and high-yield forests According to estimates by experts, the 18 provinces and districts east of the 400 mm isotherm in China, from the south to the north, have the water and heat conditions for the development of Swinhoebayashi. It covers an area of ​​about 7 million to 8 million hectares. At the same time, it can transform and cultivate the existing forest area, which constitutes the abundance of forests, with an area of ​​about 7.5 million hectares, totaling about 14 to 15 million hectares.
Starting from the “6th Five-Year Plan” period, the state began systematically researching key varieties of high-yielding and high-yield technologies for more than 20 important tree species in the construction of fast-growing and high-yield forests. The southern tree species studied were firs, masson pines, foreign pines, and Yunnan pines. Eucalyptus, Acacia, Betula alnoides, Fokienia hodginsii, etc.; northern species are larch, Korean pine, poplar, white birch, ash, eucalyptus and so on. At present, great achievements have been made in the selection of excellent provenances, excellent pedigrees, superior clones, and breeding of new varieties; the introduction of foreign tree species; high yield cultivation techniques and efficient processing and utilization technologies. In particular, during the Ninth Five-Year Plan period, focusing on directional cultivation objectives such as improving the properties of timber, shortening the rotation period, and increasing economic efficiency, a high yield of related tree species with the goal of cultivating pulp, man-made boards and building materials was established. , high-quality, efficient cultivation of technology systems. Many new varieties and new technologies are already quite mature and are at an advanced level in the world and can be widely promoted.
The main problems in the development of the rapid forest The fast-growing and high-yielding forests in China have experienced the stages of starting, developing, and stopping. At present, the speed of the construction of the Sufenglin is lower than that of the 1980s, and there are many problems worthy of attention.
● The directional cultivation is not clear, cultivation and processing are not used, and the development model of integration of trade, industry and forest under the conditions of market economy has not yet been established. Of the existing fast-growing and high-yield forests in China, 80% are conifers and 20% are hardwoods. The hardwood supply capacity is insufficient. China's current coniferous materials in construction materials, as the beams, columns and other structural materials are increasingly reduced, a large part of the door, window materials are replaced by steel, aluminum, plastic and other materials; and hardwood materials for interior decoration and furniture Demand continues to expand. In the late 1970s and 1980s, it was the period for the rapid development of China's Sufenglin. The Ministry of Construction of the Central Government invested 50.58 million yuan in joint ventures and created 72,800 hectares of quick-leaf forest bases. The World Bank supported the "national afforestation project" and "forest resources development and The "Protection Project" has invested a total of US$891 million to create 2.1 million hectares of Sofeng Forest Base. Due to the lack of a complete industrial chain, the construction of these fast-growing and high-yielding forests has certain problems of supply and demand disconnection. For example, Hunan has created a large area of ​​fast-growing and high-yield Chinese fir forests, which can only meet the demand for construction timber, and the market needs low-cost pulpwood. And hardwood. Due to the lack of integration with the downstream processing industry, the cultivation goal is not clear, resulting in forest priceless and affecting the farmers' enthusiasm for forest management; and the province's national 520 key enterprises Hunan Yueyang Paper Group Papermaking with pine wood and Yang wood The supply of raw materials is in short supply. The local market is in short supply and needs to be purchased from neighboring provinces. Experiences and lessons at home and abroad have shown that only in accordance with the mode of combination of cultivation and processing, to take the road of enterprise development can effectively avoid this drawback, both to ensure that the processing company's low-cost stable raw material supply, but also to ensure that the forest has a profit, to form a trade The industrial development pattern of the integration of industry and forestry.
● Low technology content, low quality and poor stability. The utilization rate of forest trees in China is only 20%, and the operation is extensive, resulting in low growth and low volume per unit area. The storage volume of planted forests nationwide is only 34.26 cubic meters per hectare, and the average annual growth of timber forests is only 3 cubic meters per hectare, which is quite different from the 5-7 cubic meters per hectare of forestry developed countries. Taking the short-cycle eucalyptus as an example, the annual growth of eucalyptus papermaking forest in Brazil can reach 42-70 cubic meters per hectare. The annual growth of fast-growing eucalyptus trees in China is 10-12 cubic meters per hectare, which is 30% of that in Brazil. The annual growth of New Zealand radiata pine pulpwood is 17-30 cubic meters per hectare, and the annual growth of Pinus massoniana in China is 10 cubic meters per hectare, which is 33%-60% of New Zealand.
● There is a serious shortage of funds. The development of timber forests mainly depends on forestry discount interest loans, but the proportion of forestry discount loans to the total scale has dropped from 42% in 1988 to less than 10% at present. The proportion of total forestry output value in GDP fell from 1.8% in 1990 to 1.1% in 1999. The development of forestry lags behind the development of other industries in the national economy.
● Heavy tax burden. According to the statistical analysis of the survey, timber taxes and fees in China reached more than 20, accounting for more than 50% of the sales price, as shown in Figure 5. There are three types of collection agencies: first, national taxes, including special agricultural and forestry taxes, value-added taxes, urban construction taxes, and educational surcharges; and second, fees collected by the forestry sector, including forestry funds, maintenance fees, and forestry construction protection fees. , Quarantine Fees, Inspection Fees, Provincial Resources Compensation Fees for Timber Provinces, etc.; Third, local surcharges, mainly county, township co-ordination, village retention, rural timber consignment fees, industrial and commercial transaction fees, water conservancy construction funds, various fund-raising, apportionments, Fees and so on. Excessive tax burden on timber is caused by the increase of farmers' burdens on the one hand. On the other hand, the artificial forestry process is divided into three major processes: forest management, forest industry, and distribution and sales. The scope of taxation has been expanded, resulting in multiple taxation, and repeated taxation. The unreasonable distribution of this benefit has reduced the income of timber operators, making it difficult to maintain simple reproduction and affecting the enthusiasm of companies and forest farmers. In most parts of the country, timber taxes and taxes account for more than 50% of the first purchase price, and Fujian accounts for 60% to 70%, which greatly reduces the enthusiasm for investing in forestry.
Key Forestry Projects Closely Related to Commercial Materials during the Tenth Five-Year Plan and Related Policies to be Promulgated by the State (to be continued)

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