Research on Comprehensive Utilization of Bamboo Processing Residues

Liu Zhikun, Li Zijian, Gao Bi (College of Engineering, Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin'an, 311300)

Abstract: A large amount of processing residues are generated during the processing of bamboo. Most enterprises use this as a fuel, and some small processing points are discarded, which wastes resources and affects the environment. In this study, the bamboo processing residue (experimental material is bamboo chips) is fixed-temperature dry distillation, that is, the bamboo chips are uniformly heated and heated during the dry distillation process, and cracked in stages under controlled temperature conditions to obtain bamboo vinegar with chemical composition and homogenization. Bamboo charcoal.
Key words: bamboo chips, dry distillation, temperature

In the process of bamboo processing, a large amount of processing residues will be produced. According to statistics, the weight utilization rate of bamboo in the production of bamboo flooring, bamboo plywood, bamboo mats and bamboo daily necessities is less than 40%, and more than 60% of the bamboo materials are in the process of processing. It becomes a processing residue, and most companies now use this as a fuel. Some small processing points are discarded, which is a serious waste of resources and affects the environment. The use of bamboo processing residues has long been a hot issue of bamboo processing enterprises, and it is also a technical problem in processing and utilization. The methods that have been used in the past are as follows: First, the processing residue is processed into a molding fuel, which is a molded product which is processed into a rod shape or a granular shape and has a firm texture under high temperature and high pressure conditions [1], and the second is processing. The residue is made of activated carbon by physical or chemical methods [2]. The third is to convert the biomass material into energy, and to transform, liquefy, gasify and burn the biomass material (processing residue) [3], four It is the use of processing residues to manufacture wood-based panels for comprehensive utilization. Looking at the above various methods and approaches for utilization, some have difficulties in processing technology; some have technical difficulties, and it is difficult to achieve major technological breakthroughs in the short term, and they cannot be industrialized for the time being; some are not economically viable. In order to make full use of resources and explore new ways to efficiently utilize bamboo and processing residues, this study used high-temperature dry distillation to pyrolyze the bamboo processing residues to obtain bamboo vinegar and homogeneous bamboo charcoal with relatively simple chemical composition.

1 Experiment and process
1.1 Experimental materials and equipment Bamboo chips were taken from the processing residues of the bamboo mat processing factory. They were naturally stacked for three months before the test. The fermentation was carried out during the stacking. The moisture content of the first experimental bamboo chips was 30.1%. The water content was 42.1%. The dry distillation kettle is an external heat type self-made dry distillation kettle, which has a temperature control device and a device for promoting the flow of bamboo chips. The bamboo chips in the dry distillation are uniformly turned and uniformly heated, and the dry distillation temperature is controlled by a manual control and an automatic temperature control method.
1.2 The dry distillation process is based on the basic chemical decomposition of bamboo. The dry distillation process uses a staged temperature control method to deheat the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The temperature is 110 °C, 170 °C, 225 °C and 275 °C. The above four temperature segments. Start to heat up faster, when the material temperature exceeds 110 °C, use stepwise heating, the heating time is as short as possible, when heating to the next set temperature, heat and collect bamboo vinegar, when the bamboo vinegar flow is very small, then Warm up to another step temperature and continue to collect bamboo vinegar. At each step temperature point, it is condensed by a condensing device to obtain a bamboo vinegar having a relatively simple chemical composition.
1.3 Specific operation method of dry distillation The moisture content of bamboo chips was measured before dry distillation. 100 kg of bamboo chips were weighed into a dry distillation kettle, the temperature was sealed, and the initial temperature and time were recorded. When the material temperature is about to rise to the set value, the control is started, and the target temperature control value is gradually reached. The temperature rise inertia is avoided to cause the temperature to be out of control. According to the preset target temperature, the time of each stage and the amount of bamboo vinegar are recorded. A sample of bamboo vinegar was collected for 15 minutes, the pH was measured, and the color change was observed.

2 Experimental results <br> The experimental results are shown in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1 List of the first experimental data

Serial number time Temperature (°C) (reactor outlet) Collect bamboo vinegar quality per unit time (kg) PH
1 20:47 93.5 2.1 3
2 21:02 100 4.35 3
3 21:17 100 7.05 3
4 21:32 101 5.2 3
5 21:47 101 3* 2.8
6 22:02 101 0.6* 2.8
7 22:17 130 10.4 2.8
8 22:32 185 5.9 2.8
9 22:47 185 0.1 2.8
Total 38.7

* Accurate measurement due to too fast exothermic reaction

Table 2 Summary of the second experimental results

Serial number time Temperature (°C) (dry distillation top outlet) Collecting vinegar quality per unit time (g) PH value Density (g/ml)
1 20:23 75 760 3.6 0.996
2 20:38 75 330 3.8 0.986
3 20:53 86 1110 3.6 0.996
4 21:08 85.6 715 4.1 0.994
5 21:23 80.6 500 4.1 0.99
6 21:38 83.3 710 4.1 1.002
7 21:53 90 1480 4.1 1
8 22:08 88.5 1090 3.8 0.998
9 22:23 81 495 4.1 0.988
10 22:38 89.6 1740 3.8 0.996
11 22:53 95 2160 3.4 0.988
12 23:08 88.3 980 3.4 0.99
13 23:23 90 2140 3.4 0.986
14 23:38 90 1460 3.4 0.986
15 23:53 86.8 550 3.4 0.99
16 0:08 90 960 3.2 0.996
17 0:23 84.7 590 3.4 0.986
18 0:38 88 1150 3.2 0.996
19 0:53 91 1000 3.2 0.99
20 1:08 90.5 660 3.2 0.996
twenty one 1:23 86 640 3.2 0.996
twenty two 1:38 86 450 3.2 0.996
twenty three 1:53 88 610 3.2 1.002
twenty four 2:08 87.5 690 3.4 0.996
25 2:23 85.5 440 3.2 0.994
26 2:38 82 410 3.2 0.998
27 2:53 84.5 740 3.2 1.012
28 3:08 91.5 440 3.2 1
29 3:23 93.5 640 3.2 0.994
30 3:38 93 450 3.4 1.002
Total 29.4kg Average 0.995

Note: Due to the leakage of cold suspects during the retorting process, the yield of bamboo vinegar is less.

3 Conclusion
3.1 The shape and structure of the bamboo processing residues are extremely different. The pyrolysis method is a feasible and efficient way to utilize resources efficiently.
3.2 A considerable amount of bamboo vinegar with a relatively simple chemical composition can be obtained by processing the remainder of the fixed-temperature dry distillation bamboo.
3.3 The pH value of the bamboo vinegar obtained after the dry distillation of the stored bamboo processing material changes from about 4.2 to about 2.5. When the material temperature is low, the pH value is high, and the pH value decreases as the material temperature gradually increases.
3.4 There are two high peaks of bamboo vinegar in the process of dry distillation of bamboo processing residues: one is when the material temperature is 100-120 °C, and the other is at a material temperature of about 200 °C.
3.5 Regardless of the dry distillation temperature, the density of the obtained bamboo vinegar varies, but the average value is about 1.

1 Jiang Jianchun, Liu Shicai et al. Research on particle forming combustion technology for forestry residues; forestry chemistry and industry V01.19No.3 Sept.1999
2 Yang Min, Song Xiaorui, etc.; Biomass cracking and liquefaction; Forest chemical and industry V01.20 No.4Dec.2000
3 Gu Kelong's thoughts on the development of China's activated carbon industry; Forest Chemicals and Industry V01.19 No.1Mar.1999

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